MEMs

Error-Free Data Acquisition and Archival for High-Bandwidth Military Applications

Acquiring data from sensors, transporting the data, and then archiving it for future reference has changed dramatically over the last few years. The traditional approach of collecting data from an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with a small microprocessor to monitor the slow-changing levels of a signal is for the most part no longer adequate. Today's new advanced military systems now employ complex sensors capable of generating streams of data with rates of 100 megabytes and greater. To transfer this high-speed data from the sensor to a processor without losing signal characteristics, designers now must digitize the data at the sensor. To meet this requirement, designers needed a protocol that would transport the digital data with minimum processing or latency. This problem was pursued by several companies, including Curtiss- Wright, and the result was the ANSI/VITA 17.1-2003 Serial Front Panel Data Port standard (S-FPDP).

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology
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The Dataflow Interchange Format for Designing DSPs

The dataflow interchange format (DIF) is a conceptual framework for helping designers of digital signal-processing (DSP) systems to integrate diverse dataflow models, dataflow techniques, DSP-design software tools, DSP software libraries, and embedded processing platforms. Somewhat more specifically, the DIF is intended to afford a unique combination of capabilities for (1) developing dataflow models and techniques for exploring the complex design spaces for embedded DSP systems; (2) porting DSP designs across various software tools, libraries, and embedded processing platforms; and (3) synthesizing software implementations from high-level, dataflow-based program specifications.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology
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Thwarting Code-Injection Attacks Using SDT-Based ISR

An improved method has been devised for defending a server or other computer against a code-injection attack, in which an attacker exploits a hardware or software vulnerability to inject harmful or otherwise unwanted code into an application program that is being executed and then causes the injected code to be executed. The present improved defense method provides for a secure and efficient implementation of instruction-set randomization (ISR), incorporating several advances beyond related prior methods that utilize ISR.

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Some Advances in Digital-Image Forensics

A program of research in the forensic analysis of digital images has yielded several proposed techniques for automated image-data processing to answer questions concerning the source, authenticity, and integrity of a given image or set of images. The need for such techniques arises because the ease with which digital images can be created and altered without leaving obvious traces can give rise to doubts about their credibility, especially when they are used as legal evidence. Like other proposed techniques of image forensics, the techniques reported here are subject to limitations. Because none of the techniques by itself offers a definitive solution to the digital-image-verification problem, the research continues in an effort to propose new techniques and combine them with existing techniques to obtain more reliable decisions.

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Parametric Design of Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Shapes

A method of parametric design of bodies having arbitrary three- dimensional shapes has been invented. The method is intended mainly for use in the design, analysis, and manufacture of propeller and propulsor blades, submarine sails, ship hulls, rudders, control vanes, sonar domes, and other bodies for which hydrodynamic or aerodynamic properties are important considerations.

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Development of Adaptive and Reflective Middleware

A report describes Phase II of the Adaptive and Reflective Middleware Systems (ARMS) program, which was focused on developing an adaptive and reflective network Quality-of-Service (QoS) infrastructure for the Total Ship Computing Environment (TSCE). Conceived for the next generation of Navy surface ships, the TSCE is associated with a computing architecture characterized by modularity, extensibility, scalability, and amenability to upgrading of all software and hardware systems. A major feature of the ARMS approach is the use of a bandwidth broker that provides admission control and leverages differentiated-services and class-of-service functionalities of high end routers and switches in order to guarantee end-to-end QoS in a heterogeneous computing environment. Building upon the Phase I product, the Phase II development (1) provides continued assurance of network QoS for mission- critical tasks in the presence of single mode faults and such catastrophic faults as the loss of an entire data center, and (2) improves timely adaptation to network performance using probes and instrumentation to measure delay. The ARMS development also raises the level of abstraction in the use of model-driven development software tools for configuring, deploying, and achieving QoS in distributed real-time embedded systems.

This work was done by Balakrishnan Dasarathy of Telcordia Technologies, Inc. for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

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Establishment of a Center for Defense Robotics

A document presents an overview of the recently established Joint Center for Unmanned Ground Vehicles (JC-UGV), located at the Army's Detroit Arsenal in Warren, Michigan. The JC-UGV is intended to become the central facility for managing all phases of the life cycles of military robotic ground vehicles: from concept; through research and development, acquisition, and sustainment; to the end of life. The JC-UGV is also intended to facilitate the move of the Robotic Systems Joint Program Office (RS-JPO) from Huntsville, Alabama to the Detroit Arsenal as part of a consolidation of military development and acquisition of all ground vehicles. An important part of the mission of the JC-UGV is to provide a system- integration laboratory that will include both robotic hardware and a distributed computational-simulation environment that will enable researchers and developers in the RS-JPO, industry, and academia to collaborate to solve complex problems. In addition to describing the aforementioned developments in detail, the document describes the organizational structure of the JC-UGV, discusses the role of the JC-UGV as one of several military organizations oriented toward lifecycle management, and summarizes JC-UGV university outreach, industry outreach, and pilot programs.

Posted in: Briefs, Mechanical Components
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Variable-Data-Rate Speech Encoder

Avariable-data-rate (VDR) speech encoder has been designed to be interoperable with, and eventually to supplant, the many different voice encoders now used in military communication systems. Because these older systems were designed to utilize specific radio links with fixed and limited channel capacities, these systems utilize many different voice compression algorithms operating at various fixed rates. The incompatibility of these systems is an obstacle to interoperability. Emerging net-centric communication systems promise to provide connectivity to all military users, but compatible encoding will be necessary for interoperability, and encryption will be necessary for secure communications.

Posted in: Briefs, Electronics & Computers
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Apparatus Generates CE-Phase-Stable Two-Cycle Optical Pulses

A n apparatus that includes two optical parametric chirped pulse amplification stages has been built as a means of generating few-cycle, common-envelope (CE)-phase-stable, high-energy optical pulses. [CE phase is the phase of an optical carrier-signal waveform relative to the pulse envelope waveform. CE phase is an important property of fewcycle pulses, and CE-phase stability is essential in typical applications involving few-cycle pulses.] The apparatus can generate two-cycle (14-fs-duration) pulses at a nominal middle wavelength of 2 μm, and two-cycle (5-fs-duration) pulses at a nominal middle wavelength of 800 nm at a repetition rate of 1 kHz, without need for pulse compression by an external apparatus. The apparatus is intended for use in high-harmonic generation (HHG) of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-rays in the near term, extending to production of attosecond EUV and soft-x-ray pulses in the longer term. Moreover, this apparatus is expected to enable exploration of generation of fewand single-cycle laser pulses over the wavelength range from 700 to 2.6 μm.

Posted in: Briefs, Photonics
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Terahertz Fiber-Optic Lasers for Detection of Explosives

Fiber-optic lasers of a proposed type would serve as sources of coherent radiation at frequencies between 0.5 and 4.0 THz and output power levels ≥100 mW. In the original application envisioned in the proposal, these lasers would be parts of compact, man-portable instruments for detection of explosives.

Posted in: Briefs, Photonics
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