MEMs

Synthesizing Pseudo-Finer-Resolution MODIS Data Products

A document discusses a methodology for synthesizing finerresolution data products from outputs of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites. Typical MODIS ocean color data have 1-km resolution, but those in five wavelength bands have 500-m resolution and those in two wavelength bands have 250-m resolution. Finer-resolution bio-optical-property data products improve our capability for monitoring coastal ocean and estuarine processes.

Posted in: Briefs, Physical Sciences
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Infrastructure for Development of Secure, Reliable Software

The Verification and Automated Reasoning research group at Cornell University has been building an infrastructure, comprising human expertise and computational resources, for the development of secure, reliable software for critical military applications. Such software includes distributed real-time embedded software systems, which are inherently complex and difficult to understand and specify. The infrastructure includes both efficient means of constructing the software and mathematically rigorous means of ensuring that the software will be secure and correct by construction.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology
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A Formal Model of the Attack Surface of a Software System

A formal model has been devised to impart some mathematical rigor to the concept of the attack surface of a software system. Complementing the model is a definition of a quantitative measure of the attack surface as an indicator of the relative insecurity of the system (the larger the attack surface, the more insecure the system). The model and the quantitative measure are intended to serve as systematic means of assessing progress in the development of secure software; they are expected to be especially valuable for evaluating the relative degree of security of two successive versions of nominally the same computer program.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology
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Deciphering the New SUMIT™ Specification

The new SUMIT specification is managed by the Small Form Factor Special Interest Group (SFF-SIG). SFF-SIG is a newly formed, non-profit industry group that develops, promotes, and supports small form factor circuit board specifications and related technologies. The group embraces the latest technologies, but also has a philosophy of maintaining legacy compatibility and enabling smooth transitions to next-generation interfaces.

Posted in: Articles, Articles, Embedded Technology, Board-Level Electronics, Electronics & Computers, Computer software / hardware, People and personalities, Terminology
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Applying Cognitive Memory to Pattern Recognition

Whether you are involved in robotics or other domains, pattern recognition is essential to progress. A new device, called the CogniMem chip, offers a hardware solution to this problem. CogniMem can be considered a true Artificial Intelligence device because it has been designed specifically for the purpose of learning, memorizing and recognizing.

Posted in: Articles, Articles, Embedded Technology, Board-Level Electronics, Electronics & Computers, Artificial intelligence, Electronic equipment, Neural networks
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Direct Spray Liquid Cooling Systems

For decades military platforms have included electronics for avionics, vehicle controls, radios, radar, sonar and fire control. From a computational standpoint most of these systems could be accomplished with relatively low power devices. There have always been higher performance electronics for applications such as radar processing, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Re - connaissance (ISR) processing, and mission computing; however, high performance electronics were relegated to stationary, benign environments. Due to bandwidth limitations of secure communications between command centers and front line troops, trends to include these computationally intense applications on vehicles and aircraft exist. From airborne platforms such as U-2 Dragon Lady and Global Hawk operating up to 70,000 feet and -65°C, to a surface-to-air missile launcher mounted on a 5-ton truck called Medium Extended Air Defense System (MEADS) in a scorching +60°C desert, the military is deploying incredible performance in harsh environments. To fit on these military vehicles, the size, weight and power (SWaP) of the electronic systems are minimized to extend the range of airborne platforms or allow ground vehicle transport with a wider range of operation. Direct spray cooling systems are enabling these programs with minimal SWaP budgets and harsh environmental requirements to use lower cost, high performance embedded electronics.

Posted in: Articles, Articles, Embedded Technology, Board-Level Electronics, Electronics & Computers, Electronic equipment, Cooling, Durability, Reliability
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Nanostructured Ferromagnetic-Wire/Insulator Composites

A research and development effort now in progress is focused on nano-structured ferromagnetic- wire/insulator composite materials to be used as the magnetic-core materials of sensors for measuring weak magnetic fields. Figure 1 schematically depicts an example of such a sensor — a flux-gate magnetometer that resembles a traditional orthogonal flux-gate magnetometer except that, instead of a single cylindrical ferromagnetic core, there are multiple parallel ferromagnetic wire cores packed together with insulating material between them. An overriding consideration in the design, fabrication, and operation of such a magnetometer is that high effective magnetic permeability of the core is necessary as one of the prerequisites for obtaining high sensitivity.

Posted in: Briefs, Physical Sciences
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Barium Ferrite Materials for Microwave Circulators

Barium ferrite thick disks have been fabricated for incorporation in self-biased microwave devices. The process uses barium ferrite nanopowder mixed with epoxy. The mix is placed on alumina substrates to fabricate 500 μm thick disks of BaM to achieve good magnetic properties such as magnetic saturations from 2,000 to 2,500 G and coercivities fom 3800 to 4000 Oe. In addition, the barium ferrite thick disks have been incorporated into microwave devices and successfully deposited into copper contact lines for testing and use.

Posted in: Briefs, Materials
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Lubrication Considerations for Military Equipment

Military equipment is subject to increasingly harsh environmental conditions and performance requirements. Simultaneously, engineers and equipment operators are demanding longer service life and less maintenance. The proper approach to lubrication is critical to minimizing equipment failures and meeting rigorous performance specifications. While a multitude of environmental and technical variables may affect lubricant selection and use, the following considerations are important to address whenever a new lubricant is selected:

Posted in: Briefs, Materials
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Thermal Characterization of Thin Films for MEMS Applications

Dielectric thin films play a very important role in the development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). These dielectric materials often are used as insulating layers in devices, major components in MEMS structures, or even as materials strictly used for fabrication processes in a clean-room environment. In these applications, heat is often a crucial factor. Whether it be heat transfer through a device to stimulate operation, a device being exposed to certain temperatures during fabrication, or any other manner of heat transfer, these thermal processes are critical to device operation in MEMS. As such, thermal properties of these thin film dielectrics, especially thermal conductivity, are very important parameters to insure proper device operation.

Posted in: Briefs, Materials, Microelectricmechanical device, Heat transfer, Insulation, Materials properties
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