Medical

Wireless Sensor Enables Study of Traumatic Brain Injuries

A new system that uses a wireless implant has been shown to record – for the first time – how brain tissue deforms when subjected to the kind of shock that causes blast-induced trauma commonly seen in combat veterans.

Posted in: News, Aerospace, Defense, Medical, Research Lab, Data Acquisition, Sensors
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MIT Provides Yeast a Different Environment for Ethanol Tolerance

Ethanol and other alcohols can disrupt yeast cell membranes, eventually killing the cells. In research funded by the MIT Energy Initiative and the U.S. Department of Energy, researchers at MIT and the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research found that adding potassium and hydroxide ions to the medium in which yeast grow can help cells compensate for that membrane damage. Read more at http://articles.sae.org/13609.

Posted in: Articles, News, Aerospace, Defense, Energy, Medical
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Wireless Vital Signs Monitor for Trauma Patients

A miniature, portable wireless vital signs monitor (MWVSM), called Mini-medic™, could aid in the triage and diagnosis of trauma patients with and without traumatic brain injury (TBI). The MWVSM consists of two components, both of which are the approximate size and weight of a cellphone: one is a sensor that is placed either on the forehead or the fingertip of a patient, and the other is a monitor that receives a wireless signal transmitted up to 100 m carried by the medic.

Posted in: Briefs, Aerospace, Defense, Medical, Sensors and actuators, Medical, health, and wellness, Head injuries
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Effect of Acceleration Frequency on Spatial Orientation Mechanisms

Extreme motion environments can induce loss of visual acuity, motion sickness, and spatial disorientation. Understanding how human sensory integration of acceleration stimuli affects spatial awareness will improve models of spatial disorientation and mishap analysis. While there are numerous studies describing vestibular semicircular canal responses to angular acceleration, less is known about vestibular otolith responses to linear acceleration. This gap in knowledge is important to resolve, since seasickness and airsickness are highly dependent on the predominant frequency of a linear acceleration stimulus.

Posted in: Briefs, Medical, Body regions, Human factors, Nervous system, Vehicle acceleration, Vehicle dynamics
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Precision Targeting with a Tracking Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope

Adaptive optics (AO) has become increasingly utilized in research ophthalmic diagnostic instruments since their first use nearly ten years ago. Integration of adaptive optics in scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) is a flying-spot technique whereby scattered light in images is blocked by placement of an aperture at a back conjugate focal plane. Adaptive optics systems sense perturbations in the detected wavefront and apply corrections to an optical element that flattens the wavefront and allows near diffraction-limited focus.

Posted in: Briefs, Medical, Adaptive control, Lasers, Medical equipment and supplies
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High-Resolution Anatomic and Elastographic Transrectal Ultrasound for Improved Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer screening generally uses the Pro state Spe cific Antigen (PSA) blood test, free-PSA testing, and Digital Rectal Exam ination (DRE). When the PSA is used, there exists a significant gray area in which cancers may be missed. Addition ally, DRE is practically limited to the detection of shallow (subcapsular) palpable abnormalities. Even systematic multi-core biopsy fails to detect clinically detectable cancers in up to 34% of men. Thus, there is compelling clinical interest in finding improved detection methods.

Posted in: Briefs, Medical, Diagnosis, Diseases, Physical examination, Acoustics, Test equipment and instrumentation
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Macromolecular Carriers for Nanomedicine and Nano Devices

Tailoring the surface properties of biodegradable nanospheres and microspheres for in-vivo blood-contacting applications includes defining relationships among chemical composition, processing parameters, nanosphere sizes and size distributions, and surface structure. Developments include: 1) a facile method for achieving magnetite-polylactide nanospheres that can be dispersed in aqueous media; 2) methods for functionalizing the termini of the hydrophilic brushes on the nanospheres in order to conjugate targeting moieties; 3) development of a nanosphere processing approach that yields nanospheres in the desired size range with a narrow distribution of sizes; and 4) maintainence of all of these characteristics with up to approximately 60 weight percent of magnetite incorporated into the nanospheres.

Posted in: Briefs, Medical
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Genetic Studies of Responses of Bones to Mechanical Stresses

Progress has been reported in a continuing program of molecular genetic studies of the responses of bones to mechanical stresses. Prior studies in mice and humans had provided evidence that mechanical loading stimulates bone formation and that immobilization or loss of mechanical stimulation leads to decreasing bone formation and increasing bone loss. Other prior studies in humans and mice had demonstrated that bone anabolic response differs widely among individuals subjected to the same degree of mechanical loading. The initiation of the present studies was motivated by the conjecture that variations in bone anabolic response among individuals are attributable to differences in the transcription levels of genes; that is, they are genetically controlled.

Posted in: Briefs, Medical
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Tactical Medical Coordination System

The term "tactical medical coordination system" (TacMedCS) denotes any of several prototype electronic systems for tracking patients in a scenario that may involve multiple instances of treatment by different medical personnel in different locations. The TacMedCS was conceived as a means of facilitating coordination of care of military personnel injured in combat and/or facilitating coordination of care of victims of large-scale disasters. The most advanced prototype has already been demonstrated to be effective in operations at a Navy fleet hospital.

Posted in: Briefs, Medical
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Remote Blood Pressure Waveform Sensing

This non-contact, non-invasive blood pressure apparatus continuously measures and monitors blood pressure using a laser Doppler vibrometer to create waveforms. The laser-based system may be utilized to continuously provide highly detailed information about the timing characteristics of the blood pressure waveform. The system does not require elaborate adjustments of one or more lasers and laser detectors so it may be quickly utilized. The system takes measurements from a subject when the subject is moving.

Posted in: Briefs, Medical
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