Transparent Ceramics for High-Energy Laser Systems

When a high-energy laser (HEL) beam transmits through a window material, a part of the laser energy is absorbed by the material and causes optical aberrations. This absorbed energy results in material heating in the local exposed region, changing its refractive index based on the material’s thermo-optic coefficient, thermal expansion coefficient, and stress optic coefficient. These changes result in beam distortion and loss of output power, measured as optical path distortion (OPD), which has a severe impact on system performance.

Posted in: Briefs, Materials, Windows and windshields, Lasers, Ceramics, Heat resistant materials

Optical Properties of Aligned Carbon Nanotube Mats for Photonic Applications

Carbon nanotubes possess unique electronic properties that are very useful for building electro-optical devices at nanometer scales. In optoelectronic applications, a large number of carbon nanotubes will be assembled in a desired form.

Posted in: Briefs, Materials, Electronic equipment, Optics, Nanomaterials

Ultraviolet Polymerization of Hydrodynamically Shaped Fibers

Materials composed of stacked plates are stronger than the same materials in bulk. However, such stacked plate materials are generally composed of hard, inorganic materials cemented together by a more flexible substance, and do not occur in long fiber shapes. Very few natural or manmade materials are composed of stacks of plate-like fibers. Manmade polymer fibers are nearly always round because they are fabricated using two-phase systems; for example, a solubilized polymer precursor or a monomer–initiator solution is introduced into air by electrospinning, extrusion, or pulling.

Posted in: Briefs, Materials, Fabrication, Fibers, Materials properties, Polymers

Quasicrystalline Aircraft Coating Shows Promise for Cookware, Prosthetics

A technology initially designed to lubricate aircraft parts could lead to more durable nonstick cookware and prosthetic bone-repair implants.

Posted in: Tech Transfer Reports, Coatings & Adhesives

Fundamental Interaction Between Gold Nanoparticles and DNA

Quantum dots (QDs) and nanoparticles (NPs) are made of metal and/or semiconductor materials with diameters ranging from 5 to 100 nm. The properties of these nanomaterials, which depend on their size and the material they are made from, are usually completely different than the properties of their corresponding bulk materials. There may be anywhere from 1 to 1,000 electrons in a single QD, providing numerous possibilities for their opti-

cal and electrical properties.

Posted in: Briefs, Materials, Composite materials, Materials properties, Metals, Nanomaterials, Semiconductors

High Critical Current in Metal Organic Derived YBCO Films

High-temperature superconducting (HTS) YBCO wire is a versatile technology for a number of military and commercial applications. However, anticipated military applications such as energy-dense electric propulsion systems (including motor and adjustable speed motor drives), directed-energy weapons (including the gyrotron magnet and power supply), and commercial applications such as motors, generators, transformers, and power transmission lines require improvement in the performance of such wires before these applications are broadly realized.

Posted in: Briefs, Materials, Electric cables, Materials properties, Industrial vehicles and equipment, Military vehicles and equipment

Temperature Effect on Drop-Weight Impact of Hybrid Woven Composites

The main idea of composite material is to combine different materials to produce a new material with performance unattainable by the individual constituents. It gives flexibility to the designer to tailor the new material with properties to obtain peak performance for a particular application.

Posted in: Briefs, Materials, Design processes, Composite materials, Materials properties

Synthesis of Long-Chain-Branched (LCB) Polysulfones for Multifunctional Transport Membranes

Increasing numbers of technologies are based on the idea of harnessing charge transport for useful processes such as energy harvesting, actuation, and sensing. Although much progress exists based on perfluorosulfonated platforms, new and more complicated parameters arise as applications require multifunctionality in engineering materials. For instance, in addition to using lightweight, durable, stable, high-conductivity proton-exchange membranes in a fuel cell, it may be desirable to have the energy source bear load and operate as a structural installment. The most prevalent class of materials potentially capable of such a tradeoff is rubbery “salt-in-polymer” electrolytes that employ polymer segmental motion for transport of free ions from co-dissolved salts.

Posted in: Briefs, Materials, Fabrication, Conductivity, Elastomers, Electrolytes

Biodegradable MEMS Based on Cellulose Paper

Electro-Active Paper(EAPap) has been recognized as a new smart material that can be used for sensors, actuators, biomimetic robots, and smart wallpapers. EAPap is made with cellulose paper by coating thin electrodes on both sides of it. This paper can produce a bending or longitudinal strain in the presence of an electric field. Also, it can produce an induced charge under the external stress. This EAPap material has many advantages in terms of large displacement output, low actuation voltage, low power consumption, dryness, flexibility, sensing capability, and biodegradable characteristics.

Posted in: Briefs, Materials, Microelectricmechanical device, Sensors and actuators, Fabrication, Lightweight materials, Materials properties, Smart materials

Functionalized Silk Materials

T he goal of this work was to exploit the novel structural, physical, and biological features of silk proteins towards functionalization of materials systems generated from this family of protein. A new generation of functional silk systems is sought to provide novel materials with precise control of material features. Three main directions were planned: (a) protein chimeras to form organic (silk) – inorganic nanocomposites; (b) formation of electronic materials using a similar design strategy, but based on enzymatic coupling reactions to form conducting polymers; and (c) continuing to understand and exploit novel processing approaches with these proteins towards new functional materials systems.

Posted in: Briefs, Materials, Research and development, Fabrication, Biomaterials, Materials properties