Information Science

Channel Modeling for a Wireless Transmission System

A wireless transmission system provides high-quality video transmission over severely impaired wireless links between nodes that are connected within airborne networks. The target bit rate for the proposed video communication can be in the range between 24 Kbps and 384 Kbps with relatively high visual quality. However, the system may operate at extreme low bit rates down to 10 Kbps and at high bit rates up to 1.5 Mbps. To accommodate the large range of the data rate for heterogeneous wireless links and devices, the H.264 SVC standard for video coding and decoding was adopted.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology, Mathematical models, Cryptography, Imaging, Wireless communication systems
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Optimized Robust Adaptive Networks in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems

The Electric Power and Communica - tion Synchronizing Simulator (EPOCHS) system could provide great benefits to private industry and Department of Defense (DoD) power systems infrastructure by allowing simultaneous, synchronous simulation of communication and power system simulators to better understand the power grid under anomalous situations. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems and the power grid infrastructure have recently been the focus of attention given the recent disclosure of potential cyber attacks. Applying Special Protection Schemes like the one used by the EPOCHS systems could provide a solution not only to cyber attack, but to possible cascading failures typical to power systems on current high-load demands. Utilizing an Internet-like architecture to implement such a backup and communication system is likely to be the most logical solution to providing a power grid intranet.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology, Computer simulation, Failure modes and effects analysis, Architecture, Cyber security, Telecommunications systems, Electric power grid
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Evolvable Approaches to Software Verification and Validation

Research was conducted to integrate and advance current techniques in compilers, hardware architectures, and security to develop novel techniques to protect against physical attacks on encrypted embedded systems. The innovation in the approach was in exploiting the power of integrated software-hardware methods that do not require processor re-design. The hardware side of the innovation comes from using reconfigurable logic to implement security techniques in hardware. The reconfigurable logic in hardware, when combined with the ability of the compiler to instrument the code, can be used in powerful ways to strengthen the security of computing platforms. Several techniques were proposed and designed to address these objectives.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology, Computer software / hardware, Cryptography, Cyber security, Research and development, Quality assurance
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Method for Detecting Planar Surfaces in Outdoor Urban Environments

The ability to detect and recognize buildings is important to a variety of vision applications operating in outdoor urban environments. These include landmark recognition, assisted and autonomous navigation, image-based rendering, and 3D scene modeling. The problem of detecting multiple planar surfaces from a single image has been solved with this technology.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology, Imaging, Product development
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Study of Submodeling of a Small Component in a Structure

A study was performed to evaluate the accuracy achievable in the use of submodeling in finite-element modeling of the mechanical response of a structural system that includes components embedded in a larger structure that is subjected to a large transient load. The specific system studied was a simplified model of a “smart” projectile containing a substructure that supported an electronic-circuit board on which were mounted two capacitors and an eight-lead integrated circuit (see figure). The main body or shell of the projectile was represented as a cylindrical ring supporting the substructure. The dimensions of the various components were chosen to be typical of “smart” munitions. The transient load condition was represented by a velocity-versus-time boundary condition, typical of the velocity versus time of a projectile at launch, imposed at the lower surface of the cylindrical ring.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology
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Next-Generation Information Systems Architectures

A document describes a paradigm in which low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with wireless communication capability are used to assist networking among a set of ground stations. This new paradigm is attractive because UAVs can be dynamically deployed in a wide variety of geographical territories. Furthermore, UAVs often have high-quality line-of-sight communication links with other UAVs, and ground stations as aerial links usually suffer relatively little shadowing compared with their terrestrial counterparts.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology
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Infrastructure for Development of Secure, Reliable Software

The Verification and Automated Reasoning research group at Cornell University has been building an infrastructure, comprising human expertise and computational resources, for the development of secure, reliable software for critical military applications. Such software includes distributed real-time embedded software systems, which are inherently complex and difficult to understand and specify. The infrastructure includes both efficient means of constructing the software and mathematically rigorous means of ensuring that the software will be secure and correct by construction.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology
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A Formal Model of the Attack Surface of a Software System

A formal model has been devised to impart some mathematical rigor to the concept of the attack surface of a software system. Complementing the model is a definition of a quantitative measure of the attack surface as an indicator of the relative insecurity of the system (the larger the attack surface, the more insecure the system). The model and the quantitative measure are intended to serve as systematic means of assessing progress in the development of secure software; they are expected to be especially valuable for evaluating the relative degree of security of two successive versions of nominally the same computer program.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology
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Explicitly Timed Authorization Logic

A document describes explicitly timed authorization logic (nicknamed "η-logic"). In prior authorization logics, it is, variously, impossible or difficult to handle time explicitly; express security policies that involve complex, time-dependent relationships; or reason accurately about time. By enabling explicit mention of time, η-logic makes it easier to reason about time-dependent consequences of policies.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology
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Software Virtual Networks Integrate Training and Operation of Wireless Net-Centric Warfare Systems

Military planners are aggressively developing network-centric warfare platforms that use wireless communications as a force multiplier. The aim of these programs is to provide warfighters with the best equipment and technology to achieve tactical dominance as soon as practical.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology
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