Information Science

Universal Sparse Modeling

Sparse data models, where data is assumed to be well represented as a linear combination of a few elements from a dictionary, have gained considerable attention in recent years, and their use has led to state-of-the-art results in many signal and image processing tasks. Sparse modeling calls for constructing a succinct representation of some data as a combination of a few typical patterns (atoms) learned from the data itself.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology, Mathematical models, Data management, Terminology

Web Service and Interface for Remote Electronic Device Characterization

A lightweight Web Service (WS) and a Web site interface have been developed that enable remote measurements of electronic devices as a “virtual laboratory.” Using standard browsers without additional plug-ins (such as Internet Explorer, Firefox, or even Safari on an iPhone), remote users can control a Keithley Instruments’ source-measurement unit and monitor results in real time from anywhere on the Internet. The present interface is flexible, and could be expanded to many other devices and instruments, such as remote measurements of bionanotechnology or micromechanical devices.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology, Measurements, Computer software / hardware, Internet, Human machine interface (HMI), Test equipment and instrumentation

Comparison of Subpixel Phase Correlation Methods for Image Registration

When working sequences of images, registration of the frames to a common point of reference is an essential prerequisite for many types of image analysis. The phase correlation method (PCM) is a popular Fourier domain method to register two images. It computes a phase difference map that (ideally) contains a single peak. The location of the peak is proportional to the relative translation [dx, dy] between the two images. The PCM is resilient to noise and image defects and is readily automated.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology, Analysis methodologies, Imaging, Satellites

Evolutionary Data Mining Approach to Creating Digital Logic

When required to reverse-engineer a product, engineers often do not have design specifications for the system, and the machine may not be disassembled or invasively examined. The engineer might attempt to find the correct signal through trial and error, but this would be very time-consuming, and access to experimental resources is very expensive. To deal with this problem, a genetic program (GP)-based data mining (DM) procedure has been invented.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology, Mathematical models, Artificial intelligence, Big data, Systems engineering

Data Fusion of Geographically Dispersed Information for Test and Evaluation

Test and evaluation relies on computer collection and manipulation of data from a myriad of sensors and sources. More computing power allows for increases in the breadth and depth of the information collected. The same computing power must assist in identifying, ordering, storing, and providing easy access to that data. Fast networking allows large clusters of high-performance computing resources to be brought to bear on test and evaluation. This increase in fidelity has correspondingly increased the volumes of data that tests are capable of generating.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology, Data exchange, Data management, Test procedures

360-Degree Visual Detection and Target Tracking on an Autonomous Surface Vehicle

Operation of autonomous surface vehicles (ASVs) poses a number of challenges, including vehicle survivability for long-duration missions in hazardous and possibly hostile environments, loss of communication and/or localization due to environmental or tactical situations, reacting intelligently and quickly to highly dynamic conditions, re-planning to recover from faults while continuing with operations, and extracting the maximum amount of information from onboard and offboard sensors for situational awareness. Coupled with these issues is the need to conduct missions in areas with other possible adversarial vessels, including the protection of high-value fixed assets such as oil platforms, anchored ships, and port facilities.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology, Imaging, Durability, Reliability, Autonomous vehicles, Military vehicles and equipment

Flexible Computing Architecture for Real-Time Skin Detection

In both the Air Force and search and rescue (SAR) communities, there is a need to detect and characterize persons. Existing methods use red-green-blue (RGB) imagery, but produce high false alarm rates. New technology in multispectral skin detection is better than the existing RGB methods, but lacks a control and processing architecture to make them efficient for real-time problems. A number of applications require accurate detection and characterization of persons, human measurement and signature intelligence (H-MASINT), and SAR in particular. H-MASINT requires it for the detection of persons in images so other processing can be performed. It is useful in the SAR community as a method of finding persons partly obscured, in remote regions, and either living or deceased.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology, Architecture, Imaging, Surveillance, Personnel, Rescue and emergency vehicles and equipment

Ballistic Filter for GPS and Accelerometer Measurements

Ballistic filtering describes the dynamic equations that can be used to form Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) for the estimation of a projectile’s trajectory. The steps associated with initialization and implementing an EKF are demonstrated through a specific task. The performance of an EKF processing Global Positioning System (GPS) observation is compared to the performance of an EKF processing both GPS and axial accelerometer observations. Hit point prediction error is used as the measure of effectiveness. Both filters use the same dynamics for state and covariance propagation.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology, Trajectory control, Mathematical models, Measurements, Global positioning systems, Global positioning systems (GPS), Military vehicles and equipment

Considering Software Protection for Embedded Systems

Given the current trend of reprogrammable embedded devices within the Department of Defense and industry, attention needs to be refocused on the benefits or measurability of software protection applied to this domain. Modern reconfigurable embedded systems consider circuits as software and the tamper methods applicable to physical circuits as new threats to a broadened definition of software.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology, Cryptography, Cyber security, Embedded software, Integrated circuits, Risk assessments

FPGA-Based System for Tracking Digital Information Transmitted Via Peer-to-Peer Protocols

Peer-to-peer (P2P) networking has changed the way users search for, send, and receive digital information over the Internet. Instead of relying on interactions with centralized servers to upload and download digital content, users now share content directly with other users. While peer-to-peer networking provides new and powerful applications for the legitimate distribution of digital information, it is also being used for many illicit purposes as well.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology, Cloud computing, Cyber security, Integrated circuits, Data management