Spatiotemporal Imaging Exploiting Structured Sparsity

Spatiotemporal imaging contains a large class of imaging problems, which involve collecting a sequence of data sets to resolve both the spatial and temporal (or spectral) distributions of some physics quantity. This capability is exploited in numerous different fields such as remote sensing, security surveillance systems, astronomical imaging, and biomedical imaging. One typical example is hyperspectral imaging, which is a powerful technology for remotely inferring the material properties of the objects in a scene of interest. Ultrasonic and thermal imaging are other important examples of spatiotemporal imaging where high spatial resolution is needed for urban planning, military planning, intelligence and disaster monitoring and evaluation.

Posted in: Briefs, Aerospace, Data Acquisition, Defense, Cameras, Imaging, Optics, Data Acquisition, Sensors

Geospatial Accuracy of Small Unmanned Airborne System Data in the Coastal Environment

The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of commonly available COTS software to produce geometrically accurate orthometric mosaics and terrain models from low-altitude UAS imagery.

Posted in: Briefs, Aeronautics, Aerospace, Aviation, Data Acquisition, Design, Imaging, Automation, Data Acquisition, Sensors, Software

Monitoring a Nearshore Beneficial Use Site: Application of a Benthic Sled and Video Annotation

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Portland Districts (NWP) maintains safe and navigable waterways in Oregon through a variety of dredging projects, including channel deepening, and dredging sandbars. Placement of dredged sediment occurs at preselected, specific geographic areas categorized as nearshore beneficial use sites. Beneficial use sites are commonly monitored before, during, and after disposal, to evaluate dredge management practices and to avoid potentially adverse effects to the marine environment.

Posted in: Briefs, Aerospace, Data Acquisition, Defense, Environmental Monitoring, Cameras, Imaging, Video, Data Acquisition, Sensors, Instrumentation, Measuring Instruments, Monitoring, Test & Measurement

Localization and Mapping of Unknown Locations with Unmanned Ground Vehicles

The main goals of this research are to enhance a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software platform to support unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) exploring the complex environment of tunnels, to test the platform within a simulation environment, and to validate the architecture through field- testing.

Posted in: Briefs, Aerospace, Defense, Batteries, Cameras, Lasers & Laser Systems, Photonics, Automation, Robotics, Data Acquisition, Sensors, Simulation Software, Software, Transportation

Simulation of Active Imaging Systems

Active imaging systems offer the promise of significantly improved tactical performance compared to passive military systems operating in adverse ground, air, and underwater/ maritime environments. These improvements would include, but are not limited to:

Posted in: Briefs, Aerospace, Data Acquisition, Defense, Imaging, Lasers & Laser Systems, Simulation Software

Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of 2-D and 3-D SiC/SiNC Ceramic-Matrix Composites

The purpose of this endeavor was to investigate the effect of 3-D weave architecture on PIP-processed ceramic-matrix composites (CMC). Microstructural studies were performed to document the resulting microstructure and mechanical testing was performed to determine the high-temperature durability of the five different variants of SiC/SiNC CMC investigated.

Posted in: Briefs, Aerospace, Imaging, Ceramics, Composites, Materials, Mechanical Components

Space Debris Orbit and Attitude Prediction for Enhanced and Efficient Space Situational Awareness

This research deals with the problem of modelling the orbit and attitude motion of uncontrolled manmade objects in orbit about the Earth, which tumble due to the natural influences of the near-Earth space environment. A mathematical, physics-based and computational approach is taken to model the forces and torques that drive the orbit and attitude evolution of such objects. The main influence modelled is solar radiation pressure (SRP), which is the interaction of solar electromagnetic radiation with the surface of an object, leading to both forces and torques that influence the orbital and attitude motion. Other influences, such as the gravitational field of the Earth, are also modelled.

Posted in: Briefs, Aerospace, Imaging, Materials, Simulation Software, Transportation

Spatial Resolution and Contrast of a Focused Diffractive Plenoptic Camera

The concept of an imaging system that captures both spatial and spectral information has existed for a while. An example of one such imaging system that encodes both location and wavelength into an image is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS).

Posted in: Briefs, Aerospace, Cameras, Imaging, Optical Components, Optics

Low-Cost Ground Sensor Network for Intrusion Detection

Perimeter surveillance of forward operating locations, such as Forward Arming and Refueling Points (FARPs), is crucial to ensure the survivability of personnel and materiel. FARPs are frequently located well outside the protective cover of the main forward operating bases. Therefore, they must provide their own organic perimeter defenses. Such defenses are manpower intensive. Research shows how cheap, remote, unattended sensors using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components can help reduce the manpower requirement for this task and yet not compromise the security of the operating location.

Posted in: Briefs, Aerospace, Defense, Electronic Components, Electronics, Electronics & Computers, Power Management, Power Supplies, Cameras, Imaging, Manufacturing & Prototyping, Materials, Mechanical Components, MEMs, Optical Components, Optics, Power, Power Transmission, Propulsion, Data Acquisition, Detectors, Sensors

Co-Prime Frequency and Aperture Design for HF Surveillance, Wideband Radar Imaging, and Nonstationary Array Processing

A co-prime array uses two uniform linear subarrays to construct an effective difference coarray with certain desirable characteristics, such as a high number of degrees-of-freedom for DOA estimation. In this research, the co-prime array concept has been generalized with two operations.

Posted in: Briefs, Aeronautics, Aerospace, Aviation, Defense, Electronic Components, Electronics, Electronics & Computers, Power Management, Imaging, Manufacturing & Prototyping, MEMs, Optical Components, Optics, Power, Antennas, RF & Microwave Electronics, Sensors