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Liquid-Crystal-Particle Thermometry and Velocimetry System

A three-dimensional (3D) defocusing liquid-crystal-particle thermometry and velocimetry (3DDLCPTV) system has been designed and constructed (but not yet operated) for use in measuring the 3D velocity and temperature fields, respectively, in a volume of interest in a possibly turbulent flow. As its name suggests, the system utilizes defocusing digital particle-image velocimetry (DDPIV) for obtaining velocity data and liquid-crystal thermometry for obtaining temperature data.

Posted in: Briefs, Physical Sciences
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Thwarting Code-Injection Attacks Using SDT-Based ISR

An improved method has been devised for defending a server or other computer against a code-injection attack, in which an attacker exploits a hardware or software vulnerability to inject harmful or otherwise unwanted code into an application program that is being executed and then causes the injected code to be executed. The present improved defense method provides for a secure and efficient implementation of instruction-set randomization (ISR), incorporating several advances beyond related prior methods that utilize ISR.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology
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Some Advances in Digital-Image Forensics

A program of research in the forensic analysis of digital images has yielded several proposed techniques for automated image-data processing to answer questions concerning the source, authenticity, and integrity of a given image or set of images. The need for such techniques arises because the ease with which digital images can be created and altered without leaving obvious traces can give rise to doubts about their credibility, especially when they are used as legal evidence. Like other proposed techniques of image forensics, the techniques reported here are subject to limitations. Because none of the techniques by itself offers a definitive solution to the digital-image-verification problem, the research continues in an effort to propose new techniques and combine them with existing techniques to obtain more reliable decisions.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology
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Parametric Design of Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Shapes

A method of parametric design of bodies having arbitrary three- dimensional shapes has been invented. The method is intended mainly for use in the design, analysis, and manufacture of propeller and propulsor blades, submarine sails, ship hulls, rudders, control vanes, sonar domes, and other bodies for which hydrodynamic or aerodynamic properties are important considerations.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology
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Establishment of a Center for Defense Robotics

A document presents an overview of the recently established Joint Center for Unmanned Ground Vehicles (JC-UGV), located at the Army's Detroit Arsenal in Warren, Michigan. The JC-UGV is intended to become the central facility for managing all phases of the life cycles of military robotic ground vehicles: from concept; through research and development, acquisition, and sustainment; to the end of life. The JC-UGV is also intended to facilitate the move of the Robotic Systems Joint Program Office (RS-JPO) from Huntsville, Alabama to the Detroit Arsenal as part of a consolidation of military development and acquisition of all ground vehicles. An important part of the mission of the JC-UGV is to provide a system- integration laboratory that will include both robotic hardware and a distributed computational-simulation environment that will enable researchers and developers in the RS-JPO, industry, and academia to collaborate to solve complex problems. In addition to describing the aforementioned developments in detail, the document describes the organizational structure of the JC-UGV, discusses the role of the JC-UGV as one of several military organizations oriented toward lifecycle management, and summarizes JC-UGV university outreach, industry outreach, and pilot programs.

Posted in: Briefs, Mechanical Components
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Development of Adaptive and Reflective Middleware

A report describes Phase II of the Adaptive and Reflective Middleware Systems (ARMS) program, which was focused on developing an adaptive and reflective network Quality-of-Service (QoS) infrastructure for the Total Ship Computing Environment (TSCE). Conceived for the next generation of Navy surface ships, the TSCE is associated with a computing architecture characterized by modularity, extensibility, scalability, and amenability to upgrading of all software and hardware systems. A major feature of the ARMS approach is the use of a bandwidth broker that provides admission control and leverages differentiated-services and class-of-service functionalities of high end routers and switches in order to guarantee end-to-end QoS in a heterogeneous computing environment. Building upon the Phase I product, the Phase II development (1) provides continued assurance of network QoS for mission- critical tasks in the presence of single mode faults and such catastrophic faults as the loss of an entire data center, and (2) improves timely adaptation to network performance using probes and instrumentation to measure delay. The ARMS development also raises the level of abstraction in the use of model-driven development software tools for configuring, deploying, and achieving QoS in distributed real-time embedded systems.

This work was done by Balakrishnan Dasarathy of Telcordia Technologies, Inc. for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

Posted in: Briefs, Information Technology
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Object Detection and Screening

Brijot Imaging Systems, Orlando, FL, has introduced the BIS-WDS® GEN 2 object detection and people screening system that provides security officials with an effective method of detecting and locating suspicious objects on a person quickly and discretely. The system features full-motion, real-time passive millimeter-wave imaging that allows users to search for potential threats on an individual from a standoff distance while the person walks through the system's field of view. It also detects liquids and gels hidden beneath a person's clothing, as well as objects made of metal, plastic, composite, liquid, and other materials that contrast with the millimeter-wave energy naturally emitted by the human body.

The BIS-WDS GEN 2's sensors do not image anatomical details or emit radiation. The system can begin imaging hidden objects when a subject is about 15 feet from the millimeter sensor aperture with an optimal focal distance of 10 feet. The system continually looks for millimeter- wave contrast and detects items based on selected size settings, with the minimum definable size of 2.5 × 2.5". The automated detection engine is comprised of three images: the real-time CCD camera image, the raw millimeter-wave image, and the processed millimeter-wave image. A graphical user interface displays up to three detection items at a time, identifying detection events in real time as they occur.

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Night Vision Systems

The Owl® and Prowler® night vision systems from B.E. Meyers & Co., Redmond, WA, can couple to 35-mm, CCD, and digital cameras along with C-Mount and 35-mm objective lenses, telescopes, microscopes, and camcorders in addition to rifles and spotting scopes. They include a built-in 200' mid-range wide-angle infrared illuminator and the original Image Guard bright light-tube protection system that automatically protects the image tube by switching off power if the unit is turned on in daylight.

These units can operate from a 1.5V AA battery or a single CR123 3V lithium battery, and weigh 18 ounces. Each unit features a 1.5" diameter wide-angle, adjustable rotary eyepiece. The Owl and the Prowler are also equipped with a multi-coated 50-mm F/1.3 C-mount objective lens with focus and an adjustable iris. The units are shipped complete with batteries and a waterproof, foam-lined carrying case.

Optional infrared spot illuminators provide, on demand, an invisible field of illumination, allowing viewing deep into dark areas and long-range image-enhancing illumination when the units are used with high-magnification telescopes. A push/pull zoom laser system allows the size of the illumination beam to be varied from wide field to narrow to match the field of view, or any objective lens optics from 50 mm to 2000 mm focal length.

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Military Training Simulation Software

Aptima, Inc., Woburn, MA, has announced the DDD 4.0 desktop simulation software for training military and civilian teams. DDD can model a range of environments, including AWACS air battle management, civilian disaster response, search and rescue, Joint Task Force command decision-making, and business management. DDD can simulate the group dynamics and interactions of teams operating in situations where personnel need to coordinate around time-sensitive tasks.

Embedded within DDD are tools that capture and quantify team performance to help team members improve their skills and help planners increase mission effectiveness. As a networked application, DDD lets geographically distributed team members interact as if they were all in the same location.

DD supports training and rehearsal applications in a variety of domains. The US Air Force uses DDD to train networked teams in Air Operations Centers, preparing them to track, fix, and organize strikes on enemy targets.

The software gives users the ability to create and modify their own virtual environments and operating scenarios. Mission planners, trainers, and researchers can modify operational roles, mission resources — such as weapons, fuel, and troop strength — and objectives to simulate realistic team activities.

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Privacy Filters

3M, St. Paul, MN, has introduced an expanded line of the 3M™ Privacy Filters for laptop computers and LCD monitors to make data visible only to persons directly in front of the screen. The microlouver technology works like vertical blinds on a window to restrict viewing to anyone looking at the computer from the side. The device allows people sitting directly in front of the screen to see their information, while others see a darkened screen. The filters fit inside the frame of the computer screen, and can be left in place when the laptop is closed. Protecting computer screens from scratches and marks, these filters also feature 3M Vikuiti™ technology, which improves screen color, contrast, and clarity.

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Posted in: Products
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