Electronics & Computers

Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility

By definition, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) describes the ability of a system, a piece of equipment, or some other electrical device that utilizes electromagnetic energy, to operate in its intended environment without suffering an unacceptable degradation in its performance, or negatively impacting the ability of another device to perform its intended function.

Posted in: White Papers, White Papers, Aeronautics, Defense, Electronics & Computers


NRL Develops Novel Monolayer Ferroelectric Hybrid Structures

Domains consisting of electric polarization dipoles are written in a checkerboard pattern into a thin film of lead zirconium titanate (PZT) with a conductive atomic force microscope, and imaged with the same instrument (left panel). Both intensity and spectral distribution of the photoluminescence emitted from a monolayer of tungsten disulphide (WS2) transferred onto the PZT surface is strongly modulated by these polarization domains (right panel). (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory) Scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Materials Science and Technology Division, have demonstrated that the intensity and spectral composition of the photoluminescence emitted from a single monolayer of tungsten disulphide (WS2) can be spatially controlled by the polarization domains in an adjacent film of the ferroelectric material lead zirconium titanate (PZT). These domains are written in the PZT using a conductive atomic force microscope, and the photoluminescence (PL) is measured in air at room temperature. Because the polarization domain wall width in a ferroelectric can be as low as 1-10 nm, this approach enables spatial modulation of PL intensity and the corresponding carrier populations with potential for nanoscale resolution.

Posted in: News, Defense, Electronic Components, Electronics, Integrated circuits, Microelectromechanical devices, Microscopy, Semiconductor devices


Development of High Quality 4H-SiC Thick Epitaxy for Reliable High Power Electronics Using Halogenated Precursors

New approaches to synthesizing SiC epitaxial layers could improve electronics performance.Development of robust semiconductor devices with high energy efficiency and reliability is a key objective towards 'Energy Conversion and Power Management ' for naval system applications. The goal of this research is to create the fundamental knowledge needed for the development of novel approaches to synthesize high-quality, thick SiC epitaxial layers (> 100μm) for reliable high voltage (≥10kV) / high power (>100 kW) electronics for navy ship applications.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Aerospace, Defense, Electronics & Computers, Semiconductor devices, Research and development, Materials properties, Marine vehicles and equipment


Silicon Based Mid-Infrared SiGeSn Heterostructure Emitters and Detectors

(a) A cross-sectional schematic of the GeSn p-i-n photodiode. (b) Dark I-V characteristics of the three samples. (c) Spectral response of the samples measured at zero bias. (d) Calculated responsivity of the samples. Enhancing the performance of GeSn p-i-n photodiodes using gold metal nanostructures.The goal of this research project was to advance the science and technology of silicon-based photonic devices using SiGeSn heterostructures. Such devices work in mid-IR spectral range and form the foundation for mid-IR photonics that enable on-chip systems for applications ranging from vibrational spectroscopy, chem/bio sensing, medical/health uses, to environmental monitoring. This project was mostly directed toward improving GeSn detectors with the use of surface plasmons induced by carefully designed metal nanostructures. The goal was to replace the current mid-IR detectors that are usually photodiodes made from narrow bandgap III-V or II-VI semiconductor compounds such as InGaAs, InSb, HgCdTe (MCT) or type-II In-GaAs/InGaSb superlattice. These photodiodes are incompatible with the CMOS process and cannot be easily integrated with Si electronics. The GeSn mid-IR detectors developed in this project are fully compatible with the CMOS process.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Electronics & Computers, Semiconductors & ICs, Integrated circuits, Sensors and actuators, Silicon alloys


Reconfigurable Electronics and Non-Volatile Memory Research

Investigating ways to make non-volatile memory devices smaller, lower power, more reliable, and radiation tolerant.The purpose of this research was to investigate non-volatile memory device technologies that could be applied to reconfigurable electronics applications to provide power reduction, radiation tolerance, smaller size, and improved reliability over existing non-volatile memory devices. The research encompasses: 1) materials and device design, and 2) fabrication and testing of the devices. The types of memory devices that were investigated are divided into three categories:

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Electronics & Computers, Semiconductors & ICs, Electronic equipment, Research and development, Reliability


Energy-Filtered Tunnel Transistor: A New Device Concept Toward Extremely Low Energy Consumption Electronics

Device used to study energy-filtered cold electron transport at room temperature: (a) The device structure. (b) Energy diagram for energy-filtered cold electron transport. The quantum well is formed in the conduction band of the Cr203 layer through band bending and a quantum well state serves as an energy filter. Altering the thermal characteristics of semiconductors can prolong battery life.Excessive heat dissipation (or power consumption) of modem integrated circuits is an undesirable effect that imposes substantial limitations on the performance of many electronic devices. For example, the level of heat dissipation /power consumption of smart phones, tablets, and laptops is such that it prohibits a continuous and prolonged operation of these devices, requiring frequent recharging. Large power consumption of electronic devices requires large energy storage in batteries, increasing the battery weights that soldiers carry in their missions or the weights of remote controlled equipment such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Therefore, technology that enables electronic devices to operate with extremely small energy consumption promises a broad range of commercial, military and space applications.

Posted in: Briefs, TSP, Electronics & Computers, Transistors, Energy conservation


Open Standard Middleware Enables New HPEC Solutions

The military embedded computing landscape has been transformed from where it was 20 years ago — and that has been almost entirely enabled by the ability of prime contractors, systems integrators, and OEMs to leverage the products of COTS manufacturers who take leading edge commercial technologies and apply them successfully to the world of military computing. A look at the commercial landscape today reveals cell phones that are putting vast amounts of location- aware information — and the ability to process that information — directly into the hands of consumers. The Internet of Things has become a deployable reality, with data derived from millions of connected sensors.

Posted in: Articles, Aerospace, Communications, Defense, Electronics & Computers, Sensors, Architecture, Computer software and hardware, Internet of things, Military vehicles and equipment