Home

Spectrum Analyzer Fundamentals – Theory and Operation of Modern Spectrum Analyzers

This primer examines the theory of state-of-the-art spectrum analysis and describes how modern spectrum analyzers are designed and how they work. That is followed by a brief characterization of today's signal generators, which are needed as a stimulus when performing amplifier measurements.

Posted in: White Papers, White Papers

Read More >>

Receiver requirements for a TDOA-based radiolocation system

Emitter location based on measuring the time difference of arrival (TDOA) at multiple receiver sites has been available for several decades. In the past, the greatest challenge lay in time-synchronizing the various spatially separated receiver sites. Extremely complex methods were needed to precisely synchronize multiple receivers. Without adequate synchronization, the results of this location method are unusable because even small synchronization errors lead to significant errors in emitter location. For example, when using a single sensor, an error of 100 ns in measured time means an error of 30 m in the estimated distance. When using multiple sensors, the errors are additive and lead to unusable location results.

Posted in: White Papers, White Papers

Read More >>

Introduction into Theory of Direction Finding

Applications of direction finding While direction finding for navigation purposes (referred to as cooperative direction finding) is becoming less important due to the availability of satellite navigation systems, there is a growing requirement for determining the location of emitters as the mobility of communications equipment increases:

Posted in: White Papers, White Papers

Read More >>

dB or not dB? Everything you ever wanted to know about decibels but were afraid to ask...

True or false: 30 dBm + 30 dBm = 60 dBm? Why does 1% work out to be -40 dB one time but then 0.1 dB or 0.05 dB the next time? These questions sometimes leave even experienced engineers scratching their heads. Decibels are found everywhere, including power levels, voltages, reflection coefficients, noise figures, field strengths and more. What is a decibel and how should we use it in our calculations? This Application Note is intended as a refresher on the subject of decibels.

Posted in: White Papers, White Papers

Read More >>

Antenna Basics

This white paper describes the basic functionality of antennas. Starting with Hertz's Antenna model followed by a short introduction to the fundamentals of wave propagation, the important general characteristics of an antenna and its associated parameters are explained.

Posted in: White Papers, White Papers

Read More >>

How to Select an Analog Signal Generator

Today’s microwave and wireless communications market is expanding at an incredible rate. Along with this growth comes an increasing need for test equipment, such as an analog signal generator, that can help verify the performance of devices and systems.

Posted in: White Papers, White Papers

Read More >>

The Fast Guide to Protecting COTS Electronics with Conformal Coatings: The Basics of Acrylic, Silicone, Urethane and Parylene Conformal Coatings

Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronics are used frequently for military and aerospace applications. They need to provide unquestionable performance, operating without fail under often extreme, severe, and rugged circumstances for extended periods of time. Some COTS applications that demand solutions superior to normal use are:

Posted in: White Papers, White Papers, Coatings & Adhesives

Read More >>